Saturday, May 23, 2020
Should Females be aloud to have an Abortion? Millions are not alive today, because they were never given the chance to be born. Did you know four out of ten pregnancies end in abortion? In the United States, abortion one of the most controversial and most debated topics. According to the Guttmacher Institute, 22 percent of all pregnancies, excluding miscarriages, end in abortion. Abortion is when a woman chooses or is forced to terminate the fetus inside her body. Do you think that a fetus has the right to be in the body of a woman against her will? Or does a woman have the choice to abort the fetus because it s her body? The answer is often determined by an individual s personal beliefs about religion, ethics, personal freedom, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦After the Supreme Court heard the testimony of this case, the justices voted for Roe. That second time this issue went to court, the Supreme Court declared the constitutional rights to have an abortion. But to this day, people have different opinions, some states are pr o and some are against abortion. Killing a fetus is the same as murdering a stranger on the street. Central to the morality debate is the issue of when life begins. However, our science is technologically advanced and proves that abortion is murder. According to (lifesitnews.com),Ã¢â¬ Unborn human beings are living, separate, and unique, from the moment of fertilization Ã¢â¬â better known as conception Ã¢â¬â a new human life is in existence.Ã¢â¬ You are not aborting your problems, youÃ¢â¬â¢re aborting a life. Once, again abortion can be considered either a simple medical procedure or the murder of an innocent life. Females need to understand the consequences of having unprotected sex. You should think about it before you had sex. Some females think that aborting a child is the last solution to their problems. Today, we have adoption programs and foster services. There are females in the world that canÃ¢â¬â¢t have kids, including my aunt. She had nine miscarriages and still hopes and prays to have kids. According to (daily mail), Ã¢â¬Å"women unable to have children, even after fertility treatment is nearly
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor born on February 11, 1847. Considered one of the best known inventors in American history, his ingenuity brought us the modern dayÃ light bulb, electrical power systems, the phonograph, motion picture cameras and projectors, and more. Much of his success and brilliance can be attributed to his unique outlook and personal philosophy, which he extolled throughout his life. Here is a short collection of some of his most notable quotes.Ã Ã On Failure While Edison has always been thought of as an extremely successful inventor, he has always reminded usÃ that failure and dealing with failure in a positive way has always been a reality for all inventors.Ã For example, Edison literally had thousands of failures before he invented a light bulb that succeeded. So to him, how an inventor deals with the inevitable failures that happen along the wayÃ can make or break their path to success.Ã Many of lifes failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up.I have not failed. Ive just found ten thousand ways that wont work.Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is to try just one more time.Negative results are just what I want. Theyre just as valuable to me as positive results. I can never find the thing that does the job best until I find the ones that dont.Just because something doesnt do what you planned it to do doesnt mean its useless.Failure is really a matter of conceit. People dont work hard because, in their conceit, they imagine theyll succeed without ever making an effort. Most people believe that theyll wake up some day and find themselves rich. Actually, theyve got it half right, because eventually they do wake up.Show me a thoroughly satisfied man and I will show you a failure. On the Value of Hard Work During his lifetime, Edison patented 1,093 inventions. It takes a strong work ethic toÃ be as prolific as he was and often it meant putting in 20 hour days. However,Ã Edison enjoyed every minute of his own hard work and once said I never did a days work in my life, it was all fun.Ã Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration.The first requisite for success is the ability to apply your physical and mental energies to one problem incessantly without growing weary.We often miss opportunity because its dressed in overalls and looks like work.If we all did the things we are capable of, we would astound ourselves.The three great essentials to achieve anything worthwhile are, first, hard work; second, stick-to-itiveness; third, common sense.Being busy does not always mean real work. The object of all work is production or accomplishment and to either of these ends there must be forethought, system, planning, intelligence, and honest purpose, as well as perspiration. Seeming to do is not doing.Ã¢â¬Å"Vision without execution is hallucination.Ã¢â¬ On Success Much of who Edison was as a person can be attributed to his relationship with his mother. As a child, Edison was considered slow by his teachers, but his mother was very diligent education and would home-school him when his public school teachers had given up. She taught her son more than just facts and numbers.Ã She taught him how to learn and how to be a critical, independent and creative thinker. There are no rules here, were trying to accomplish something.When you have exhausted all possibilities, remember this, you havent.What you are will show in what you do.Ã¢â¬Å"Five percent of the people think; ten percent of the people think they think; and the other eighty-five percent would rather die than think.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I have friends in overalls whose friendship I would not swap for the favor of the kings of the world.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Your worth consists in what you are and not in what you have.Ã¢â¬ Advice for Future Generations Interestingly enough, Edison had a vision for how he foresaw a prosperous future. The quotes in this section are practical, profoundÃ and even prophetic. We are like tenant farmers chopping down the fence around our house for fuel when we should be using Natures inexhaustible sources of energy--sun, wind and tide. Id put my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of power! I hope we dont have to wait until oil and coal run out before we tackle that.The most necessary task of civilization is to teach people how to think. It should be the primary purpose of our public schools. The mind of a child is naturally active, it develops through exercise. Give a child plenty of exercise, for body and brain. The trouble with our way of educating is that it does not give elasticity to the mind. It casts the brain into a mold. It insists that the child must accept. It does not encourage original thought or reasoning, and it lays more stress on memory than observation.The doctor of the future will give no medication, but will interest his patients in the care of the human frame, diet and in the cause and prevention of disease.Non-violence l eads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution. Until we stop harming all other living beings, we are still savages.Ã¢â¬Å"I am proud of the fact that I never invented weapons to kill.Ã¢â¬ There will one day spring from the brain of science a machine or force so fearful in its potentialities, so absolutely terrifying, that even man, the fighter, who will dare torture and death in order to inflict torture and death, will be appalled, and so abandon war forever.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Corporate Social Responsibility Being a company that prospers is very much different than a company that is consistently following a guided work ethic while making revenue. Companies these days may participate in under the table schemes or anything to make that extra buck. Very a few industries willingly follow corporate social responsibility. We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance of Corporate Social Responsibility or any similar topic only for you Order Now Corporate social responsibility (which will now be referred to as CSR) is a business firmÃ¢â¬â¢s intention, beyond its legal and economic obligations, to do the right things and act in ways that are good for society. Dell Inc. is a showcase example of companies that oblige by CSR. Not only do they willingly do right by others, they were named NewsweekÃ¢â¬â¢s 2010 Greenest Company in America. Almost everything they use from building to shipping is completely recyclable. They ship and package everything in material made out of bamboo called Ã¢â¬Å"mushroom packaging. Ã¢â¬ This sort of packaging is very durable and has the density to protect any heavy items in need of shipping. Mushroom packaging is very unique in the sense that it is grown and not manmade. Not only are they environment friendly in their use of the highly compostable mushroom packaging, they also give back. Dell knows how important it is to donate to charity and they want to create a relationship with whom they are donating money to. As stated in the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Trisa Thompson, VP of Corporate Responsibility, offered that making a determination about which charitable, non-profit organizations to work with internationally must be undertaken with great careÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ËThese are long-term relationships, not short-term, and need to be entered into carefully and with sufficient due diligence. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Dell likes to donate 1% of all pre-tax revenue to charities that support children and education. This company truly understands what it means to be successful. Rather than classifying successful as a company that earns substantial net income, they also put emphasis on using their power and money into making the world a better place. CSR is something every single company should take interest in but some CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s just donÃ¢â¬â¢t care for lack of a better word. They want to keep every penny for themselves. Cited Source 1) http://businessexecution. wordpress. com/2011/09/06/dell-issues-2011-corporate-social-responsibility-report/ How to cite The Importance of Corporate Social Responsibility, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Would these concepts and procedures be applied differently in shariÃ¢â¬â¢a compliance audits compared to conventional financial statement audits? Explain. These concepts and procedures would be applied differently in shariÃ¢â¬â¢a compliance audits compared to conventional financial statement audits because it will affect the SSB and other oversight bodies that are charged with making initial decisions on which economic ventures, contracts, transactions and other business practices are shariÃ¢â¬â¢a compliant. ) Do you believe that the proposal to merge shariÃ¢â¬â¢a compliance audits with financial statement audits is feasible? Yes, there are many arguments that support that this merge between shariÃ¢â¬â¢a compliance audits and financial statement audits is possible: the effectiveness of the shariÃ¢â¬â¢a compliance function is being undercut by the lack of formal training in auditing concepts and auditing methodologies on the part of the religious scholars principally respo nsible for that function. ) Do you agree with the assertion that accounting can lead to perceptions of reality? Explain. We will write a custom essay sample on Sharias Case or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In deciding whether to adopt a proposed accounting standard, should accounting rule making bodies consider whether that standard might induce socially irresponsible behavior on the part of economic decision makers? Islam accepts the fact that accounting is a social construction and itself constructs social reality but this social reality which the accounting constructs must conform to the dictates of Islamic belief. A rule making body issues authorative shariÃ¢â¬â¢a auditing standards for all Islamic banks and other Islamic businesses and it will be the most effective way to eliminate problems within the Islamic economy. The most effort to develop a body of consistent standards for shariÃ¢â¬â¢a audits has been undertaken by the accounting and auditing organization for Islamic financial institutions (AAOIFI). 4) Identify the key challenges that the big four firms will likely face in their efforts to establish a major presence in the Islamic banking industry. The role of the external auditor to Islamic financial institutions requires a different skill set and experience to that possessed by some accounting organizations. * Issuing a marketing brochure that identifies the wide range of professional services the firm could offer Islamic banks. * Meeting the needs of Islamic financial institutions across national boundaries. * Leading providers of professional accounting, auditing, and consulting services to the Islamic finance sector. * Hiring an Islamic religious scholar. * Offering shariÃ¢â¬â¢a audit services.
Thursday, March 26, 2020
Executive Summary This project proposal is presented to source for financing of opening of a Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s franchise. The proposal includes a critical analysis of all the estimated costs, scheduling and justification. These costs are matched against the forecasted revenues from the projects over a five years period.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Project Proposal for Financing a Franchise Acquisition specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The completion of acquisition of Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s franchise will grant the franchisee the exclusive rights to operate the business of making and distributing pizzas under the Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s franchise. The acquisition of this franchise will see the operations begin in less than a month. This is because the Papa John has an offer of up to $50,000.00 worth of free equipment upon acquisition of the franchise rights and signing of the agreement. The rest of the major costs w ill be leasing of a building which is readily available. Other operational costs are incurred once the business in running and these can be met by the working capital float. The process of acquiring the franchise rights will take up to a maximum of two weeks and operations can begin in a monthÃ¢â¬â¢s time once the funds are availed and the materials and equipment are in the premises. The expected revenue of this business is $600,000.00 in the first year in the most optimistic scenario, $500,000.00 in the most probable scenario, and $400,000.00 in the most pessimistic scenario. The revenues are expected to grow at a rate of 10% per year for at least the next ten years. The fixed costs are predicted to be about $600,000.00 in the first year and then dropping to $200,000 per year for the next foreseeable future. The other variable costs are estimated to be about $100,000.00 per year afterwards. Having all this information, the proposal, therefore, seeks financing for the establishmen t of the restaurant franchise. Introduction This proposal is submitted with the intention of sourcing for the financing of the acquisition of Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s franchise. Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s Pizza is a restaurant that has been in the business of making and distributing pizzas for the last two and half decades. Making pizza from better ingredients has been Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment since the first day of the opening of the first restaurant.Advertising Looking for proposal on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has resulted in one of the best quality pizzas in the world. The brand has consequently grown to be the favorite among many consumers. As such, Papa John is seeking to expand the brand presence to possibly all the countries of the world. This franchise is intended to be opened in a small town of Glenwood springs, Colorado. Currently, the town has no pizza outlet yet residents are great consumers of pizzas. The completion of this franchise acquisition will see the franchise acquiring the first mover advantage and take an estimated 90% of the pizza consumers in the city. This will go a long way in establishing a strong goodwill in among the town residents. Customer Deliverables Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s pizza has a quality proposition to the customer: Ã¢â¬Å"making quality pizza using better ingredients.Ã¢â¬ This dedication to the quality of the product ensures that customers are attracted to the products of the company and subsequently, customer loyalty is gained. The customers can also expect a twenty four hour home delivery service. The customer is always the major focus in any profit making business. This is because the customer consumes the products and without the customer, no company would exist. This realization of the importance of customers has compelled Papa John to have a mission that is customer focused. The consumption of the pizzas from the restaurant will not only benefit the business owner but will also contribute to the social welfare of the Glenwood springs community. This is because the franchise has a Ã¢â¬Å"5% profit apportionment to the societyÃ¢â¬ policy. This will, therefore, ensure that good external relations are created and maintained between the company and the community around it. Project Objective statement The main objective of this project is to open a Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s franchise restaurant in Glenwood town, Colorado. This is aimed at capturing the consumer market in the town while delivering superior quality pizzas. The franchise will also offer employment opportunities for around one hundred people once it is fully operational. Since this will be the first pizza delivering restaurant in town, the revenues are estimated with a high degree of accuracy. A recent market study indicates that an opening of a pizza restaurant in the town would certainly be a viable business venture with a success degree of 95%. The financing of this project would therefore ensure that the opportunity available in the market is exploited.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Project Proposal for Financing a Franchise Acquisition specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Franchise success criteria Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s franchise restaurant, being a private profit motivated business will have its success measured on a number of scales. The most important success scale is having a positive Net Present Value after the first five years upon which the project financing is sought. Net Present value is a finance appraisal technique that discounts the future cash flows of a project (Don, Richard, Steve, John, 2002). If the Net Present value is more than zero, the project is acceptable and its chances of success are higher than when it has been below zero. The other success measure used to appraise the project is the projected revenues. The project needs to operate at leas t under the most probable scenario so as to ensure that the profits earned offset the costs incurred and having residual funds as profits. This is highly achieved by ensuring that operational measures put in place are adhered to as well as ensuring rigorous marketing activities. The other success criteria used is the controllability of costs. The costs to be incurred by the project ought to be estimated with a high degree of accuracy. This will ensure that the chances of contingent expenses are reduced. Costs play a major role in appraising the success of the project since the profits margins can be estimated with a high degree of certainty. As such, the estimated costs will offer insightful information about the success possibility of the business. The final success criteria used is the adaptability to the environment. A business usually operates under two environments: internal and external. The internal environment includes all the factors that contribute to the organizationÃ¢â¬ â¢s service delivery. They include resources, both tangible and intangible, processes, structure and the organizational culture. The internal environment is important in formulating business strategy since it consists of factors that are controllable by the management. The external environment consists of those remote factors which are outside the control of the company.Advertising Looking for proposal on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, the company must ensure it crafts its strategy that will ensure that it fits within the external environment (Geoff, 1996). Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurant will, therefore, be regarded successful in this regard if manages to take advantage of the opportunities presented while avoiding the threats that the environment presents. Capital cost Estimates The capital expenses for this project involves leasing building, equipments and other assets such as motor vehicles. The following table gives the breakdown of the fixed costs for the five years: Period lease equipment Motor vehicles Franchise fees totals year 1 300,000 100,000 150,000 50,000 600,000 year 2 100,000 50,000 25,000 25,000 200,000 year 3 100,000 50,000 25,000 25,000 200,000 year 4 100,000 50,000 25,000 25,000 200,000 year 5 100,000 50,000 25,000 25,000 200,000 Cost estimation techniques The cost estimation technique used in this project is the Method of Moments. This is a project costs estimation techn ique that expresses the different costs associated with the various cost items (Quentin Joel, 2010). The advantage of this method of estimation is that the total project costs are assumed to follow a normal distribution based on central limit theorem. The method is helpful in deriving the contingency from the normal distribution. This can be helpful in tracking the areas where costs were over incurred or under incurred (Quentin Joel, 2010). This is useful in the future funding of the projects. Using this cost estimation the following table analyses the different cost items as a percentage of the total costs. Fixed Costs percentage costs Lease 700000 26% Equipment 300000 11% Motor vehicles 250000 9% Others 150000 6% variable costs salaries 150000 6% costs of goods sold 1000000 37% Administration expenses 150000 6% total costs 2700000 100% Cost Analysis The above projects costs have been divided into two different classifications: fixed and varia ble costs. The fixed costs consist of lease, equipment, motor vehicle and contingent. The allocation of a total of $700,000 on lease for the five years comes from the need for premises that will not only host the restaurant but also the offices. The amount allocated for lease is 26% of the total project costs. This is a desirable fraction of the total costs since building of a new plant or purchasing a building would push the costs high. The lease requirements state that the first year the amount needed will be $300,000 which will fall to $ 100,000.00 per year for the next five years. Equipment takes up 11% of the total costs of the project. This is due to the various purchases of the new equipment for the restaurant in addition to the $ 50,000.00 worth of equipment given for free by the franchisor upon signing the agreement. The equipment costs are justifiable since the company recovers the full amount spent on capital expenses through the capital tax allowances while submitting th e income tax. Motor vehicles will be used as the premium means of transport for both the raw materials and the products. The initial costs will, therefore, be $150,000.00 and then drop to $25,000.00 per year for the next four years. An analysis of the variable costs indicates that the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s variable costs majorly consist of salaries, cost of goods sold, and administrative expenses. These expenses are, therefore, justifiable since they are pegged on the projected output for the five years. The largest percentages of costs come from the cost of goods sold. This comes from the purchases and the support activities that bring the product to a consumable state. Cost Assumptions Cost assumption is an important aspect of any cost estimation report. It helps understand the rationale under which the costs were arrived at. Cost estimation also gives a clear interpretation of how the costs were arrived at during the preparation of the projects costs (Nicholas Herman, 2008). There ar e different cost assumptions that exist for different cost scenarios. The most common cost assumptions are that the costs always follow a linear format. This is an assumption that seeks to streamline the change in the costs over the different periods under which the project is to be appraised. In the Papa JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurant franchise financing proposal, there are several cost assumptions that have led to the nature of cost estimates. The first assumption is that the costs will follow a linear distribution over the five years provided. This assumption typically means that over the next five years the costs are expected to remain unchanged. This assumption, however, has several limitations including the fact that in real practice, costs cannot be the same over different periods. This is because of the different market conditions that require firms to spend on the unseen up-comings. This weakness is, however, catered for by the provision of the contingency costs which come under others. The next cost assumption is that the fixed costs will remain the same for the different cost items over the five years. This assumption helps in having a consistent cash flow that can easily be appraised. This assumption is, therefore, a desirable assumption since it helps in having visual appraisal of the projects without having the need of doing extensive detailed report. There is an assumption that the salaries will remain constant over the next five years. This assumption, therefore, means that the employees will either receive constant pay for the five year period without the possibility of salaries additions or the work force may be reduced as the business gets less labor-intensive thus reducing the number of workers and increasing their pay. Project Appraisal Project appraisal is a financial activity that is carried to evaluate the feasibility of an intended project (Linn, 1981). The most common methods of project appraisals are the discounted cash flows methods which include the Net Present value (NPV), the IRR, and the profitability index. The method used in this case in the Net Present Value. This method is used in all three possible scenarios: the optimistic, the most probable and the pessimistic. Net present value (the most optimistic) Papa John Restaurant PERIOD CASH FLOW Investment cash outflow Revenues net cash flows Pvif 12% PV 0 400,000 -400,000 1 -400,000 1 460,000 600,000 140,000 0.8929 125,006 2 460,000 660,000 200,000 0.7972 159,440 3 460,000 726,000 266,000 0.7118 189,339 4 460,000 798,600 338,600 0.6355 215,180 5 460,000 878,460 418,460 0.5674 237,434 TOTAL 0 2,700,000 NPV 526,399 Here the Net present value of the project is positive and therefore the project acceptable. Net Present Value (most probable scenario) Papa John Restaurant PERIOD CASH FLOW Investment cash outflow Revenues net cash flows Pvif 12% PV 0 400,000 -400,000 1 -400,000 1 460,000 500,00 0 40,000 0.8929 35,716 2 460,000 550,000 90,000 0.7972 71,748 3 460,000 605,000 145,000 0.7118 103,211 4 460,000 665,500 205,500 0.6355 130,595 5 460,000 732,050 272,050 0.5674 154,361 TOTAL 0 2,700,000 NPV 95,631 The most probable scenario results in a positive NPV as well. This is, however, less than that of the most optimistic scenario. Net Present Value (the pessimistic scenario) Papa John Restaurant PERIOD CASH FLOW Investment cash outflow Revenues net cash flows Pvif 12% PV 0 400,000 -400,000 1 -400,000 1 460,000 400,000 -60,000 0.8929 -53,574 2 460,000 440,000 -20,000 0.7972 -15,944 3 460,000 484,000 24,000 0.7118 17,083 4 460,000 532,400 72,400 0.6355 46,010 5 460,000 585,640 125,640 0.5674 71,288 TOTAL 0 2,700,000 NPV -335,136 The scenario above shows the expected outcome if the franchise fails in the market. This shows a negative net present value of $ -335,136.00. This scenario shows that if t he expected revenues turn out as indicated, the project is not feasible. However, the project has a positive NPV from the most probable scenario and should, therefore, be considered for acceptance. In appraising the above project, the cost of capital is set at 12%. This is because it is the required rate of return that money lenders are willing to earn as return to their cash lent out or invested. This discounting rate has been used in all possible scenarios. Project Schedule The project is divided into two stages: the pre-take off stake and the business stage. The first stage indicates the resources and inputs needed to ensure that the restaurant starts up while the second stage shows the timelines set for the restaurant to become fully operational. WBS Code Milestone Start Date Finish Date 1.1.5 sourcing of financing 01/24/2012 02/06/2012 1.2.5 Application of franchise agreement 02/06/2012 02/08/2012 126.96.36.199.6 Business License application 02/08/2012 02/10/2012 188.8.131.52.4 Purchase of equipment 02/14/2012 02/18/2012 184.108.40.206 installation and testing 02/19/2012 02/19/2012 220.127.116.11 Employees recruitment 02/25/2012 02/29/2012 18.104.22.168 start of operations 03/01/2012 03/03/2012 References Don, D., Richard, I., Steve, H., John, H. (2002). Capital Budgeting: Financial Appraisal of Investment Projects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Geoff, R. (1996). Programme Management Demystified: Managing Multiple Projects Successfully. London: E FN Spon. Linn, C. S. (1981). The Implementation of Project Management: The ProfessionalÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook. Los Angeles: Addison-Wesley. Nicholas, J. M., Herman, S. (2008). Project Management for Business, Engineering, and Technology Principles and Practice. Amsterdam: Elseivier Butterworth-Heinemann. Quentin, W. F., Joel, H. K. (2010). Earned Value Project Management. London: Project Management Insitute. This proposal on Project Proposal for Financing a Franchise Acquisition was written and submitted by user Barbara Abbott to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Bowhead Whale Facts The bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) got its name from its high, arched jaw that resembles a bow. They are a cold-water whale that lives in the Arctic. Bowheads are still hunted by native whalers in the Arctic through special permission for aboriginal subsistence whaling.Ã Identification The bowhead whale, also known as the Greenland right whale, is about 45-60 feet long and weighs 75-100 tons when full-grown. They have a stocky appearance and no dorsal fin. Bowheads are mostly blue-black in coloration, but have white on their jaw and belly, and a patch on their tail stock (peduncle) that gets whiter with age. Bowheads also have stiff hairs on their jaws. The flippers of a bowhead whale are broad, paddle-shaped and about six feet long. Their tail can be 25 feet across from tip to tip. The bowheads blubber layer is over 1 1/2 feet thick, which provides insulation against the cold waters of the Arctic. Bowheads can be individually identified using scars on their bodies that they get from ice. These whales are capable of breaking through several inches of ice to get to the water surface. An Interesting Discovery In 2013, a studyÃ described a new organÃ in bowhead whales. Amazingly, the organ is 12 feet long and wasnt yet described by scientists. Ã The organ is located on the roof of a bowhead whales mouth and is made of a sponge-like tissue. It was discovered by scientists during the processing of a bowhead whale by natives. They think that it is used to regulate heat, and possibly for detecting prey and regulating baleen growth. Read more here. Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia Order: Cetartiodactyla Infraorder:Ã Cetacea Superfamily: Mysticeti Family: Balaenidae Genus: Balaena Species: mysticetus Habitat Distribution The bowhead is a cold-water species, living in the Arctic Ocean and surrounding waters. Click here for a range map. The largest and most well-studied population is found off Alaska and Russia in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Ã There areÃ additional populations between Canada and Greenland, north of Europe, in the Hudson Bay and Okhotsk Sea. Feeding Bowhead whales are a baleen whale, meaning they filter their food. Bowheads have about 600 baleen plates that are up to 14 feet long, illustrating the immense size of the whales head.Ã Their prey includes planktonic crustaceans such as copepods, plus small invertebrates and fish from the seawater. Reproduction The bowheads breeding season is in late spring/early summer. Once mating occurs, the gestation period is 13-14 months long, after which a single calf is born. At birth, calves are 11-18 feet long weigh about 2,000 pounds. The calf nurses for 9-12 months and isnt sexually mature until it is 20 years old. The bowhead is considered one of the worlds longest-living animals, with evidence showing some bowheads may live to over 200 years. Conservation Status and Human Uses The bowhead whale is listed as species of least concern on the IUCN Red List, as the population is increasing. However, the population, currently estimated at 7,000-10,000 animals, is far lower than the estimated 35,000-50,000 whales that existed before they were decimated by commercial whaling. Whaling of bowheads started in the 1500s, and only about 3,000 bowheads existed by the 1920s. Due to this depletion, the species is still listed as endangered by the U.S. Bowheads are still hunted by native Arctic whalers, who use the meat, baleen, bones and organs for food, art, household goods, and construction. Fifty-three whales were taken in 2014. The International Whaling Commission issues subsistence whaling quotas to the U.S. and Russia to hunt bowheads. References and Further Information: American Cetacean Society. Bowhead Whale Fact Sheet. Accessed June 25, 2010.International Whaling Commission. Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Catches Since 1985. Accessed March 23, 2016.NOAA Fisheries: National Marine Mammal Laboratory. Bowhead Whales, Accessed March 23, 2016.NOAA. Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus). (Online) NOAA Fisheries: Office of Protected Resources. Accessed June 25, 2010.Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G.P., Urbn, J. Zerbini, A.N. 2008. Balaena mysticetus. (Online) IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. . Accessed on 25 June 2010.Rozell, Ned. 2001. Bowhead Whales May Be the Worlds Oldest Mammals. Alaska Science Forum, February 15, 2001. Accessed June 25, 2010.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Thrasymachus and Justice in Plato's Political Philosophy - Research Paper Example Distinguished sophist of ancient Greece Thrasymachus has elucidated the term justice while entering into discussion on the same topic with great philosopher Socrates, which has been elaborated by SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ renowned disciple Plato in his Republic. Book I of the Republic encompasses the debate between Thrasymachus and Socrates, where the former makes two assertions about justice. At first, he declares the notion as mere the Ã¢â¬Ëadvantage of the strong over the weakÃ¢â¬â¢; and secondly he views justice as Ã¢â¬Ësubmitting to the prevailing statutes of the state law.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Hourani, 111) The powerful governments, according to Thrasymachus, strive to implement their policies by dint of the force they enjoy in comparison with the weaker states; consequently, the policy is expected to be observed and followed by all the weak nations. As a result, it becomes the law, which is unconditionally and unanimously imitated by all. Consequently, it is equally beneficial for the weaker due to the very reality that it would be obeyed by all the weak without discrimination, and hence will become a law for all individuals. The sophist also argues that justice imposes unnecessary restrains on the human desires, and thus it does not turn out to be advantageous for the majority of the people in general. Hence, on the one side, Thrasymachus defines justice as the exploitation of the weak individual(s) or stratum at the hands of the powerful; and on the other side, he declares it as the abiding of the uniform law, which looks at everyone on the foundations of equality and impartiality. Thus, stronger group signifies the elite or ruling stratum of society, while the weak can be compared to the masses at large. Since the stronger stratum not only articulates the rules and laws, but also abides the same rules it has devised for all, these statutes of law are supportive for the protection of the rights of the weaker too. Somehow, Socrates points out contradiction in the very definition of justice Thrasymachus has developed. Consequently, it invites criticism from Socrates because of the contradiction it contains in its very scope. Socrates, during his cross examination of the very arguments made by Thrasymachus, vehemently refutes the validity of his viewpoint. He is of the opinion that since the individuals, even from the strong and ruling classes, are humans, and hence can make mistakes, they cannot be expected to devise error free laws, policies and strategies. On the other hand, even their most sincere efforts can maintain flaws and mistakes while devising the laws; so these statutes, in the form of advantages and privileges for the stronger, are unable to present the real picture of justice in their nature and scope. Somehow, Thrasymachus counters SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ objection by stating that the rulers are free from making errors or committing mistakes till they are at the helm of the power. And even if they commit they same, there is no one to chal lenge or point out their mistakes till they are enjoying the position of rulers. In other words, the weaker strata do not have the power to put even the incorrect rules into jeopardy. Consequently, they remain as the laws of the country till the individuals, introducing the same, are in the power. (Bloom, 25) Being one of the greatest logicians the world has ever produced, Socrates could not submit to the ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ claim that rules and laws are devised for the benefit of the rulers only. On the other hand, he clarifies his objection with the example that the artwork is created for the consumers and public, and not for the use of the artisan. Similarly, the shopkeeper involves into trade and merchandise by bringing commodities for the people. It is therefore, justice carries advantages for the common man at first, and hence cannot be attributed to the dominant political group only. Socrates also cites the professional abilities and proficiencies of the